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Flood Management - Programme and Activities

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Article Index
Flood Management - Programme and Activities
Flood Management in Malaysia
Non Structural Measures
Integrated Flood Management
All Pages

Definition of Flood


Flood can be defined as a body of water, rising, swelling and overflowing land not usually thus covered. Also, overflowing of the bank of a stream, lake or drainage system of water onto adjacent land as a result of storm, ice melt, tidal action and channel obstruction.



Types and Nature of Flood


There are no formal categorizations of floods in Malaysia but is often broadly categorised as monsoonal, flash or tidal floods. In addition, floods are also described based on its location, characteristics, the cause, the timing as to when it occurs and its duration.


Causes of flood


  • Natural Causes of flood: Short, high intensity leads to flash flood, heavy widespread rain leads to land inundation
  • Human Induced floods: Disposal of solid wastes into rivers, sediments from land clearance and construction areas, increase in impervious areas and Obstruction and constriction in the rivers


Flood Prone Area in Malaysia



Impacts of flood


  • Positive: Sustaining, enriching and rejuvenating certain sector of biodiversity in the floodplains, replenishes the land with nutrient rich soils and therefore good for agriculture and natural vegetation, clear debris as well as remove sediments from the flooded area, recharges groundwater storage
  • Negative: threaten lives, disrupt social and economic activities and destroy properties, causes distress and recovery can be costly both to individuals and the Government, and deterred new investments in the flood prone area

Estimates of flood damages by State




Flood Management



Initially, flood management focused on the urgent need to provide immediate flood relief works as well as to implement major flood mitigation projects to "catch-up" with the continuous and intense urban development.


New non-structural measures were introduced and the most significant being that required under Manual Saliran Mesra Alam. Compliance to this manual is now a mandatory requirement for all new urban development projects since 2001.


Since the new millennium, the DID has adopted the Integrated River Basin Development and the Integrated Flood Management approaches for its flood management programs. These will provide a balanced approach between structural and non-structural measures as well as higher levels of public participation.


Flood Relief Machinery and Organization


Government has established the Natural Disaster Relief Committee in 1972 with the task of coordinating flood relief operations at national, state and district levels with a view to prevent loss of human lives and to reduce flood damage. DID is one of the committee members and the organization of flood relief and operation is based on the Operation Procedure No.29 published by the National Security Council. Beside that, DID has published Circular No.2/2003-"Guidelines for Management of Flood Disaster during the Monsoon Season and Flash Floods" which is to coordinate the preparation of flood operations at federal, state and district levels.


Structural Measures

structural measures

Major Flood Mitigations Projects completed are:


SMART - 'Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel


Batu Jinjang Ponds & Related Diversions Project


Sungai Muda Flood Mitigation Project


Sungai Perai Flood Mitigation Project


Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Flood Mitigation Project


Bertam - Kepala Batas Flood Mitigation Project


Non-structural Measures


non structural measures2


Master Plan


  • Studies: Study on River Basin and Flood Mitigation
  • Drainage Master Plan Study


Catchment Management


  • Development Control
  • Land Preservation
  • High land use management


Water related legislation

No Legislation
1 Water Act, 1920
2 Geological Survey Act, 1974
3 irrigation Areas Act, 1953
4 Streets, Drainage and Buildings Act, 1974
5 The Forest act, 1984
6 The National Code, 1985
7 The Incorporation (State Legislature Company) Act, 1962
8 The Drainage Works Act, 1985
9 The Fisheries Act, 1985
10 Environmental Quality Act, 1974
11 Land Conservation Act, 1960
12 Town and Conutry Planning Act, 1976
13 Local government Act, 1976
14 The Merchant Shipping Ordinance, 1952
15 The Port Authorities Act, 1963
16 The Emergency (Essential Powers) Ordinance No.7, 1969
17 Selangor Water Supply Enactment, 1997
18 The Mining Enactment, 1929
19 Selangor Waters Management Authority Enactment, 1999


Flood Hazard Map

  • A risk assessment tool
  • To reduce the adverse impacts of flood disasters
  • A basic step in the formulation and effective implementation of either structural or non-structural flood mitigation measures

Definition of Integrated Flood Management (IFM)


  • An integrated approach for an effective and efficient flood mitigation management
  • Maximise the efficient use of flood plain
  • Minimise damage to properties and loss of life

Elements of Integrated Flood Management (IFM)


  • Maximise the positive aspects of water cycle
  • Integrate land and water management
  • Adopts best mix of strategies
  • Ensure participatory approach
  • Adopts integrated hazards management


IFM Principles


The IFM concept of ‘Living with flood’ is based on the following principles:
  • Employ a basin approach;
  • Treat floods as part of the water cycle;
  • Integrate land and water management;
  • Adopt a mix of strategies based on risk management approaches;
  • Enable cooperation between different agencies; and
  • Ensure a participatory approach


IFM Activities

ifm ifm


Workshop on Integrated Flood Management in Malaysia~ (Participant:JPS Top Management and Senior Engineer)

Venue:Seri Pacific, Kuala Lumpur




Seminar on Integrated Flood Management~Living with Flood Risks~(Participant:JPS and stakeholders)

Venue: PWTC




Community outreach programme (organized by MKN)

Venue:Kg.Tungu, Lahad Datu