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Breakwaters

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Breakwaters are built to reduce wave action in an area in the lee of the structure. Wave action is reduced through a combination of reflection and dissipation of incoming wave energy. When used for harbors, breakwaters are constructed to create sufficiently calm waters for safe mooring and loading operations, handling of ships, and protection of harbor facilities. Breakwaters also built to improve maneuvering conditions at river mouth entrances and to help regulate sedimentation by directing currents and by creating areas with different levels of wave disturbance

 

 

Breakwaters can be classified into two main types: sloping-front and vertical-front structures. Sloping-front structures are in most cases rubble-mound structures armored with rock or concrete armor units, with or without wavewall super-structures. Vertical-front structures are in most cases constructed of either sandfilled concrete caissons or stacked massive concrete blocks placed on a rubble stone bedding layer. In deep water, concrete caissons are often placed on a high mound of quarry rock for economical reasons.

 

 

 

Breakwaters at Sungai Marang rivermouth, Terengganu